Shaykh al-Islām Ibn Taymiyyah
It is known through large-scale successive transmission that ʿUthmān was from the most withholding of people from the [shedding] of blood, the most patient of people towards those who attacked his honour and towards those who sought to [spill] his blood. They [the hypocrites] laid seige to him [around his house], and strove to kill him, while he knew full well that they desired to kill him. And the Muslims would come to him from every direction, aiding him and indicating to him that he should fight them. However, he would command the people to withhold from fighting. He would command whoever obeyed him not to fight against them. It is also related that he said to his servants, "Whoever restrains himself [from defending and fighting], then he is free." And it was said to him, "Why do you not go to Makkah?" He said, "I will not be the first person to bring deviation into the Ḥaram (Sanctuary)." So it was said to him, "Why do you not go to Shām (Syria)." He replied, "I will not depart from the abode of my emigration." So it was said to him, "Then fight them." He said: "I shall not be the first person to succeed Muḥammad (sallallāhu ʿalayhi wasallam) in his nation with [the use of the] sword."
Minhāj al-Sunnah (6/286) through al-Mukhtārāt al-Bahiyyah (p. 296).
Translated by Abu ʿIyaaḍ, 9 Shaʿbān 1440 / 14 April 2019